Scientific “marvels” nazi-eugenicists could only dream of are widespread reality today – e.g. selective (late term) abortions of intersex foetuses “undesirable from an eugenics standpoint” (Hans Christian Naujoks 1934) because of “hereditary diseases due to abnormal predispositions, including hypospadias, pseudohermaphroditism, intersexuality, cryptorchidism and epispadias” (Baur, Fischer, Lenz 1936) – in exponentially growing rates thanks to prenatal testing. Nonetheless, public debate of such “eugenic indications” is found lacking, with occasional exceptions proving the rule mainly zeroing in on trisomy 21.
However, human rights apply to hermaphrodites too! Therefore, this blog documents some facts & figures on eugenic intersex terminations.
The following is a ranking mainly of Switzerland (although the sources used include figures from many more countries):
XXY / Klinefelter: 74% – CH Rank 3
A 2011 survey of over 20 regions, states and cities referenced and documented in the 2014 CRC Report (PDF 3.6 MB –> p. 76) finds Switzerland (74%) on rank 3, after Canada BC (88%) and Israel (85%), and followed by California and Denmark (70% each), Finland and the UK (66%) – with Germany (17%) at the rear end of the list:
“Intermediate sex”: 47% – CH Rank 2
The “Eurocat Registry (“European registration of congenital abnormalities and twins”) provides data for a global registry, tellingly named “World Atlas of Birth Defects”. The current 2nd edition collects data from 1993-1998 e.g. on a rather obscure diagnosis called “Intermediate sex”, including a chart detailing termination figures and rates (PDF 13.9 MB –> p. 184). Zurich (Switzerland) shows an overall termination rate of 47%, and in 1998 scores second with 67% – after Glasgow in Scotland (100%), and before Finland, Barcelona in Spain and Saxony-Anhalt in Germany 3rd (50% each). (Regarding the comparatively much lower figures it’s of importance to note that not all “intermediate sex” diagnoses can be made prenatally – often also after birth no specific genetic diagnosis can be determined.)
Hypospadias: 1.58% – CH Rank 2
The intersex diagnosis hypospadias is not included under “intermediate sex” in the already referenced “World Atlas of Birth Defects”, but listed seperately (same by the way as the intersex diagnosis XO “Turner Syndrome” in the “Eurocat Registry” ), again including a table of termination rates & figures (PDF 13.9 MB –> p. 178). Zurich (Switzerland) shows a termination rate of 1.58% for the period 1992-1998, and in 1995 scores rank 2 with 6.90%, after Barcelona (Spain) with 10%. #1 scores for the other years: 1993 Tomsk (Russia) 75%, 1994 Glasgow (Scotland) 12.50%; 1996 Antwerp (Belgium) 20.00%; 1997 Basque Country (Spain) 14.29%; 1998 Heinaut (Belgium) 5.56%. (Again, the rather low figures have to be put in context with the fact that at the moment hypospadias is pretty difficult to genetically test prenatally and also difficult to spot in ultrasound examinations.)
Intersex Genital Mutilations • 17 Most Common Forms
Human Rights Violations Of Children With Variations Of Sex Anatomy
IGM – Historical Overview • What is Intersex? • How Common are IGMs?
>>> Download PDF (3.65 MB) >>> Table of Contents
IGM on a Global Scale: 2015 Briefing for UN-CRC
• IGM: A Survivor’s Perspective • Intersex Movement History
• What are IGM Practices? • What are Variations of Sex Anatomy?
• IGM and Human Rights • Conclusion: IGM as a Harmful Practice
>>> Download PDF (3.14 MB) >>> Table of Contents